By hypogastric complaints we do abdobinal and small bowel ultrasound examination. By suspicious mutations of cervical or other soft tissues an ultrasound examination is done on the concerned parts (e.g.: thyroid, ganglion etc.). In case of smoking, high blood pressure or high cholesterol level, diabetes and cerebrosclerosis we recommend the Doppler ultrasound of veins.
Ultrasound examinations can be done at any age. Above 50 regular abdominal, small bowel and cervical ultrasound examination are recommended for both genders. The ultrasound examination is normally recommended in each 1-2 year. According to specific complaints or follow-ups examinations can be suggested more often.
Biologically, the ultrasound has no negative effect. In the Hungarian social security system for ultrasound examinations people need a recommendation from their general practitioners or from any other physician. The ultrasound itself and the jelly used during the examination have no side effects.
Abdominal and small bowel ultrasound examination
Abdominal and small bowel ultrasound examinations are done in a lying position with help of a contact jelly. This is a skin-firendly, water-dissolving, fatless material, which can easily be wiped off after the procedure. For specific organs for a better examination result patients sometimes have to hold back their breath for a short time and might have to turn on both sides. Normally the ultrasound examination requires a still position.
6-8 hours before the abdominal ultrasound examination it is prohibited to eat and only tap or still mineral water can be consumed. Drinking tea, coffe or sugary soda, smoking and chewing cewing gum causes gases in the intestine and respectively the emptying of gallbladder, which can significantly decrease the effectiveness of the examination. Therefore we suggest our patients to avoid the above-mentioned goods. One our before the small bowel ultrasound examination the consumption of 1 liter water and the retention of urine is recommended. The abdominal ultrasound examination lasts appr. 15-20 minutes. The ultrasound examination is painless.
Abdominal ultrasound examination
During the ultrasound examination the organs differenciate among their echo-sounding. The point of the examination is how much the organs absorb or reverberate the sound-waves coming from the transducer. Certain disease processes change the echo-sounding of the organs, therefore with the help of the examination they can be recorded. The significance of the examination is the absolute harmlessness for the human body, it has no biologically schadeful effect therefore it can be repeated several times.
The transducer of the ultrasound machine emits high-frequency, for the human ear non-hearable sound-waves. From different surfaces a part of these sound-waves reverberates, diffuses another part is absorbed. The transducer detects the reverberating sound-waves – such as a radar – it transforms them into electric signals, which will be further transformed into pictures on the monitor of the ultrasound machine. While the ultrasound easily passes through liquids and solid organs it adversely reverberates from for instance gallbladder stone, gases in the intestines, bones whereby the hidden territories get into a so called “acoustic shadow” letting no information about them.
Most of the machines are able to examine different parts of the human body by changing the transducer (transducers of different shape and of other frequencies might be needed). Among others breasts, cervical ranula, the veins, the thyroid, the vessels of the bubonocele, the testicles basically the whole skeletal muscle and the links by babys even the brain (by unclosed fontanelle) can be examined.
During the abdominal ultrasound examination the patient lies supine on the bed. He/she frees his/her belly from the clothes. A small jelly will be placed upon his/her skin. The transducer is placed upon his/her skin, they might even push it a little bit upon his/her belly. The doctor images his/her organs by moving the transducer on the body.
The abdominal examination is effective (especially by examining the gall system and the pancreas) if the patient’s stomach is empty. Normally it is recommended to eat 4-6 hours prior the examination. The regular medication can be taken with a small sip of water, it does not disturb the examination.
The examination of the urinary bladders and the organs around is effective if the bladders are full with liquid. Therefore it is recommended to drink couple of hours before the procedure. If the examined person has diabetes please ask the corresponding doctor whether to take the medication, insulin or breakfast.
The hit probability of the examination is not 100%. It can easily occur that gall bladder stones or other mutations in the liver can only be demonstrated after repeated examinations. The proper prepapration increases the effectiveness but a significant amount of gases in the intestines disturbes the procedure.
The jelly upon clothes can easily be washed. The examination is harmless and can be repeated limitless. The examination itself is painless. But in case of for instance a gall bladder inflammation where the cause of the abdominal pain is looked for the pushing effect made with the transducer might hurt.
Color Doppler examination
It gives information about differens vessel structures (arteries or veins) and about the vascular circumstances of specific organs.
With the help of the Doppler the arteries and veins of the upper and lower limbs, the cervical vessels (such as the arteria carotis and vertebralis), the abdominal vessels (vessels of the kidney, liver and splenic), the abdominal aorta can be examined. It can show the partial or full occlusions of specific vessels. In case of certain diseases, tumors the blood supply of different tissues might change, which on one hand can be typical for the mutation on the other hand gives the surfgeon useful information whenever clinical intervention might come into question.
The examination shows the flow of cervical and limbic big arteries, the thickness of their walls, the size and content of plaques on the inner surface. On different vessel parts the speed of the blood flow can be measured. The extent of the occlusion can be supposed from the parameters of its speed.
The examination measures the speed of the blood flow based on the Doppler- theory.
The transducer of the ultrasound machine emits high-frequency, for the human ear non-hearable sound-waves. From different surfaces a part of these sound-waves reverberates, diffuses another part is absorbed. The transducer detects the reverberating sound-waves – such as a radar – it transforms them into electric signals, which will be further transformed into pictures on the monitor of the ultrasound machine. Most of the machines are able to examine different parts of the human body by changing the transducer (transducers of different shape and of other frequencies might be needed). The cervical and abdominal organs and the vessels of the limbs can be examined.
The patient frees his/her neck or the examined part of his/her body and lies on his/her back on a bed. A specific jelly is put upon his/her body. The transducer is placed upon his/her skin, migh even be a little pushed upon. The doctor images the vessels of the examined part by moving the transducer. He/she measures the blood flow on the visible parts of the occlusions. There is no need for preparation.
The measured occlusions only show a probable percentage of the real structure. If the structure is so serious that an operation might be needed vessel painting is used. The examination is harmless and can be repeated limitless times. The examination is painless.
Dr. Sebestyén Valéria
Birth date: Mór 1960-05-11
Specialization: Ultrasound Internal Medicine, Radiology